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9 Popular Bubble Tea Flavors to Try



9 Popular Bubble Tea Flavors to Try

By now, most of you have heard of bubble tea (also known as boba)—but some of you have never tried it before *gasp*. Since there are a number of you out there who are curious about this beverage but have no idea what to get, I am here to present to you a list of nine popular flavors that my friends and other fellow bubble tea drinkers have come to love.. I will present the best boba in milk tea taste please contact at

Whether you want your bubble tea with different add-ins, iced or hot, with or without tapioca balls, one (or more) of these flavors is surely going to be a match for you. If you don’t have much of a sweet tooth, ask your bubble tea barista if they can lower the sweetness, since there are places that do offer that option on their menu: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% sweetness (the standard is usually the 100%).

1. (Black) Milk Tea

It can’t get any more basic than this. Fans of an English breakfast tea (like myself) will surely enjoy this classic milk tea out of them all. If it’s your first time having bubble tea or if you’re not really in an adventurous mood, this is a great starter drink.

2. Mango Milk Tea

This is for those with a fruity palate (and who have a love for mangoes). 

4. Strawberry Milk Tea

The first thing that came to my mind after the first sip was Nesquik strawberry milk. As one of my favorite childhood drinks (besides the Nesquik chocolate milk, of course), this drink brought back a boatload of childhood memories and reminded me of how many bottles of strawberry milk I consumed.

5. Taro Milk Tea

Soft serve ice cream. Cookies and cream. If you like any of these sweet treats, then you need to get this purple milk tea immediately. Not a lot of people know what taro is, but don’t let the name of this unique vegetable discourage you from ordering this drink—you will regret it.

6. Coffee Milk Tea

If you’re anything like the Gilmore girls, who basically need coffee every single day in order to survive, this is your match.

7. Almond Milk Tea

It’s not too difficult to guess what the other main ingredient is beside the tea base. Almond milk has become a popular alternative to drinking dairy milk, so a large number of you will be in favor of this one.

One of my roommates also said that it sort of tastes as if it had some coconut flavor (personally, I didn’t notice), so just to be on the safe side, ask a friend to get this drink for you to taste test if you really dislike the taste coconut.

8. Thai Milk Tea

Similar to the purple color of Taro Milk Tea, the orange color of this flavor is equally as unusual as it is delicious. If you’ve eaten at a Thai restaurant before, you might be familiar with Thai Tea. If so, I recommend getting this milk tea version. It’s also the perfect eye-catching drink to post on Snapchat to make all your friends hella jealous.

9. Honeydew Milk Tea

As someone from Southern California, where it feels like a heatwave 24/7, I personally think this is the best milk tea to have—especially with how refreshing it is. You’ll feel like you’ve been brought back from the brink of death during the summertime. And I’m a fan of honeydew melons, so there’s also that.

If the bubble tea isn’t to your liking the first time around, don’t be discouraged; you should take a look online (or Yelp!) to see if there’s another place that makes milk teas in your area. Each place can have a different style of making these or can use different ingredients. Either way, there are plenty of other flavors to try if you weren’t 100% satisfied with your first choice.

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Travel through Kenya, the heart of Africa



Travel through Kenya, the heart of Africa

Kilabitu SafarisThere are many films and stories of adventurers that have left us something negative about safaris: upper class men who escape for a few weeks to Africa to get rid of one of the “five kings” of the savannah, little care for the environment or lack of respect for local communities. Well, in a few years now, these experiences have radically changed. An example is this safari through Kenya , organized by the company Kilakitu Safaris, which has become one of the best ways to get to know this mythical country and which, in addition, has a series of advantages for the local population that we are commenting on.

Benefits of sustainable safarisAs long as they are developed in a sustainable way, the organization of safaris helps to sustain the local economy thanks to the development of the hotel and hospitality industry and the creation of jobs for guides and naturalists. In addition, as with Kilakitu Safaris, visitors are also invited to contribute to the community with volunteer work.

From an environmental point of view , the fact that every day there are more protected areas to organize safaris, although it seems the typical intrusion of the “Westerners” in virgin lands, does nothing but protect the fauna and flora of those places . Countries like Kenya, with an important source of income from nature tourism, protect the reserves and this prevents, for example, the disappearance of many species.

Finally, as we said at the beginning, the concept of safari has radically changed and the hunting experience is not sought . Quite the contrary: it is about allowing people from other latitudes to see how mastodons of the animal world such as giraffes, elephants, hippos, crocodiles or rhinos live, all of them settlers in different parts of Kenya.

Having laid the foundations of the meaning of our article, let’s see below some experiences to know the animal kingdom of Kenya, its human populations and the vast and magical landscapes.

Experiences and safaris in Kenya

First of all, say that the Kilakitu Safaris company organizes the experiences at different times of the year and for various periods: from 2/3 days to more than two weeks. So it can be adapted to most visitors.

Two-week safari to see much of Kenya’s wildlife

We begin with a long experience, of almost two weeks for the most ambitious who want to travel part of the Kenyan savanna and mountains calmly and thus be able to enjoy a lot of fauna and flora.

In order to enjoy this natural spectacle, there are essential places to visit and where numerous African wild species are concentrated, such as buffaloes, giraffes, elephants, lions, ostriches and all kinds of antelopes. Some of those places are:

Sanburu National Park

Sanburu National Park . It is in the center of the country, about 300 kilometers north of Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. It is a park where the savannah and the scrubland reign. That allows many species to congregate in large numbers, as well as their predators. An ideal place to spot elephants, zebras, giraffes, herds of lionesses and different species of monkeys.

Flamingos Lake Nakuru

Lake Nakuru National Park . For those who prefer aquatic fauna, this park is quite an experience. Located northwest of Nairobi in what is known as the Great Rift Valley, hundreds of thousands of flamingos, hippos, rhinos, baboons or great buffalo are concentrated in and around this lake.

Safari in the Masai Mara region

Masai women

The Maasai tribe is legendary. Of slender stature and great height, they can travel great distances because they developed as hunters in the savannah. Now they are more dedicated to herding , but they have not abandoned their most ancient traditions.

Thus, a safari through the western region of the Masai Mara, on the border with Tanzania, can be a great opportunity to meet the most legendary tribe on the continent and exchange experiences with Maasai women .

In addition, in this territory there are also large populations of lions, leopards, elephants, buffalo and rhinos.

Safari plus holidays on the Kenyan coast

Kenya’s attractions are not only concentrated in the interior. Every day more travelers choose to approach the Indian coast of this African country to enjoy a good vacation after having done a safari in the interior.

Beaches of Diani Kenya

As for the most popular destinations on the Kenyan coast, highlight the beaches and tourist resorts of Diani , about 20 kilometers south of Mombasa. Although they are not yet well known in the West, they have nothing to envy to other coasts of the world, to which must be added the natural wealth of the interior of the country, which can be reached in a few hours by car.

Safari and volunteering

We have already mentioned that safaris can be mixed with knowledge of populations such as the Maasai. This is important because the experience goes beyond the tourist circuit and delves into the knowledge of the local culture.

But, for those who still want to go further, taking a safari can also be an opportunity to do some volunteer activities in the different communities of the country. In the case of the Kilakitu Safaris travel agency, for the moment, they invite you to join the working groups that take place in the towns of Njiru and Kamulu , both near the capital Nairobi.

The idea is to combine the tourist getaway with some evenings of collaboration in all kinds of educational and cultural activities with local people. An opportunity to lend a hand and learn about the day-to-day life of Kenyans.

Safaris Express in Kenya

Obviously if you are residing a day trip from Kenya, it is difficult to enjoy such a short safari. However, if you opt for a beach vacation or a visit to a nearby country like Tanzania, among the activities to do, you can do a weekend safari to specific places. Some of them can be:

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Top 10 trips for 2021



Top 10 trips for 2021

After a very complicated traveling year, we hope that 2021 is the time to take the calendar and start looking at dates to be able to fit in all the trips we have dreamed of for so long.

Although we know that like any list, all the options are very subjective and depend a lot on each one of us, we wanted to make a list with what we think are some of the  10 best trips for 2021 , with all the practical information to organize them from the more comfortable and safe way, without missing anything important in each country or region you visit.

Keep in mind that these destinations are chosen from various points of view but at no time have we valued the global health situation that we are experiencing or the one that each of the countries currently have at a particular level, so choose them or not for a future trip , will totally depend on the evolution of the pandemic in the coming months.

For now, we keep dreaming and crossing our fingers that this year brings us some of the best trips for 2021.

1. Colombia

Colombia, located in the extreme north of South America, has everything a traveler dreams of finding in a country. Incredible natural landscapes, archaeological sites, beautiful colonial towns and cities as well as areas and islands perfect to relax on their idyllic beaches after a great trip.

During a route through the country of about 3 weeks, in which you can combine bus transfers with the plane and the rental of a car, to get lost in areas such as the Coffee Axis, you will know many of the  essential places to see in Colombia Among which are such incredible sites as the Cocora Valley, Cartagena de Indias, Guatapé, the Tatacoa desert or San Agustín, among many others.

We know that one of the concerns of many tourists when traveling to Colombia is the issue of security. In our case and after more than a month traveling the country, we can assure you that at no time did we have a setback or feeling of insecurity, although of course, you always have to have common sense and in cities like Bogotá or Medellín, move around the most touristic areas.

The best time to travel to Colombia is between December and March and July to August.


2. New Zealand

New Zealand is one of those unique destinations in the world where you can enjoy nature in its wildest state and landscapes of extreme beauty, which we are sure, will leave you speechless.

Prepared to the smallest detail to travel it on wheels, we cannot forget that this is one of the best motorhome trips in the world , although New Zealand is also known for being a quiet and very safe country.

To complete this list of essential places to see in New Zealand, we advise you to take a route of between 3 and 4 weeks through the two islands, starting with the North Island and then crossing by ferry to the South Island.

The best months to travel to New Zealand are between December and February, when it is summer there, although if you want to find cheaper prices we recommend autumn or spring.

3. Greece

Greece, the cradle of today’s Western civilization, is another of the best trips for 2021 . Although there are hundreds of combinations that you can do in the country, we recommend dividing your trip into two very different stages, but no less spectacular: Peninsular Greece and the Greek Islands.

The route through the peninsula normally begins in Athens, which has its great jewel in the Parthenon, and then goes through different archaeological sites of Ancient Greece such as Olympia, Corinth, Epidaurus, Mycenae and the incredible Delphi.

The finishing touch of this itinerary is the Meteora Monasteries, located in stone colossi over 600 meters high, which we are sure, will leave you speechless.

After Peninsular Greece you can take a ferry to spend a few quiet days in some of the best Greek Islands that form a great mosaic of colors with their turquoise waters and beautiful villages of white houses.

In addition to knowing all these essential places to see in Greece , this trip will allow you to enjoy its magnificent cuisine, ranked among the best in the world.

The best months to travel to Greece are May, June, September and October, in which you will avoid the high temperatures and the exaggerated prices of the high season.

4. Japan

Japan is one of those countries that surprise and fall in love in equal measure. A perfect combination of future and tradition, and without a doubt one of the best trips for 2021 in which you can make a complete route through Japan, from Kyoto to Tokyo , in about 2-3 weeks, traveling by train.

This trip will take you to know some of the greatest tourist attractions in the country such as  visiting the impressive temples of Kyoto , Takayama and Shirakawa-go, references such as mountain destinations, the beautiful Miyajima Island , cities such as Tokyo or Osaka or the impressive Himeji Castle .

In addition to all these places, Japan has an unsurpassed gastronomy, which includes the best sushi and fresh fish in the world, ramen, sashimi, tempura or Kobe meat, which will take you to enjoy another trip, in this case focused on the palate. and the senses.

We could say that any time is good to travel to Japan , since it is a country in which each season of the year frames a special moment for the country, although we believe that there are two special moments: spring with the cherry blossom show. and autumn, when colors become the undisputed protagonists of the trip.

5. Mexico

We could say that Mexico is one of the most beautiful countries in the world and also one of the best trips for 2021 , in addition to having one of the best gastronomies on the planet.

A route through the country could begin in its capital, Mexico City, and then travel by bus to some of the most beautiful colonial cities in the country such as San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Zacatecas or Guadalajara.

This area, and the entire country in general, have a reputation for being dangerous but after our experience traveling for a month and a half on our own, we have to say that at no time during the days we spent in Mexico did we have any sense of danger, it is Furthermore, we always move with the camera and mobile phones in hand and we feel totally safe. In addition, from what we speak with several locals and we intuit, insecurity is more focused in the north and usually due to drug trafficking issues, so tourism, in general, is not affected.

After completing the visit to some of the colonial cities, a good option is to take a plane or bus to the Chiapas area to visit the beautiful San Cristóbal de las Casas and of course, its surroundings.

And if you have more time in thisMexico on your own you can go to Oaxaca or follow the route by rental car through the states of Campeche, Quintana Roo and Yucatán, which include some of the best places to visit in Mexico  since in this most touristic area are the spectacular old cities Maya, fantastic cenotes and beaches with transparent waters where you can spend the last days of the trip in a relaxed way.

Any time is good to travel to Mexico, since being such a large country there are climatic variations according to the areas. In the southern part of the country, between the months of May to September, it is usually quite hot and humid, while in the interior, between the months of October-November to February-March, it is usually colder.

6. Iceland

Iceland is the paradise for landscape lovers and another of the best trips of 2021 . Going around the island by car along Highway 1, stopping at the places of greatest tourist interest, can take between 10 days and two weeks, although if you have less time do not worry, with a week you can also plan a very complete route , eliminating some of the most remote areas.

Something to keep in mind is that in Iceland there is not much hotel infrastructure, so it is very important to book in advance, plan a trip in a motorhome or, if you go in the hottest season, a tent.

During the days of the trip you will have the opportunity to do incredible trekking routes, walk through glaciers, see black sand beaches, volcanoes, the impressiveJökulsárlón glacier lagoon , waterfalls like Seldjalanfoss, Detifoss or Godafoss , see whales or puffins, surprise yourself in front of landscapes from another planet like those of Landmannalaugar or bathe in hot springs, surrounded by the wildest nature. You dare?

The best time to travel to Iceland, if you want to visit the island in its entirety during the summer months, although any time is good to travel to Iceland, as long as the cold is not an impediment for you.

7. Peru

Peru is another of the most visited countries and we are sure that it can be considered as another of the best trips for 2021 . If you have about 3 weeks you can do a complete route that goes from Lima to Cuzco as well as including a final trip in which you can relax for a few days in the  Iquitos or Puerto Maldonado area, to enjoy the Amazon.

On this route through Peru, in addition to being overwhelmed in front of Machu Picchu, you cannot forget to visit places such as the Paracas National Reserve, the Ballestas Islands, the Huacachina Oasis, fly over the Nazca lines, visit  Arequipa , tour the Colca Valley., being on the roof of the world on Lake Titicaca or getting lost in the Inca ruins of Pisac and Ollantaytambo.

The best time to travel to Peru is between the months of September to November, and from March to May, when the weather is pleasant and there is less tourism.

8. South Africa

South Africa is one of the most diverse countries in the world and another of the best trips for 2021 you can take.

In this surprising country you can enjoy natural landscapes that seem from another planet, see big cats such as lions and leopards up close, in its well-kept national parks as well as feel the great multicultural environment of its large cities.

To take a complete picture of the country and visit all the essential places to see in South Africa , we recommend taking a route by rental car from Cape Town to Johannesburg, passing through Swaziland, although depending on the time you have, some long stretches such as Port Elizabeth to Durban, you can do it by plane.

Although all the tourist spots are incredible in the Kruger Park, we recommend spending a minimum of 5 days, practically essential time to enjoy the safaris with your private car, enjoying a unique experience in the world.

Any time is good to travel to South Africa, although in our experience, a good time is our fall, when there are good conditions to see wildlife in the national parks and the whales come close to the coast.

9. New York

New York, known as the city of skyscrapers or the one that never sleeps, should always be among the best trips of 2021 as  well as being a good choice to spend some fun days.

Even if you go on the days that you go to the city you will enjoy it, we recommend you travel a minimum of a week, enough time to get to know its endless leisure and cultural offer, in addition to visiting its main tourist attractions such as Times Square, the Brooklyn Bridge , the Statue of Liberty or Central Park, among others.

During our 11-day trip to New York we completed this list of places to visit in New YorkEssential and we liked the experience so much that we returned a few years later to spend almost two months living in an apartment, near Central Park, where we had the opportunity to get to know the city much more closely.

One piece of advice that we think is very interesting, especially if it is your first time in the city, is to stay near Times Square or in the downtown area of ​​Manhattan Island, which is where most of the points of interest are concentrated and thus not spending a lot of time commuting on the subway.

Any time is perfect to visit New York, although in spring or autumn the parks shine in their maximum splendor and at Christmas, the city becomes magical.

10. Sri Lanka and Maldives

A trip to Sri Lanka and the Maldives is the perfect combination of adventure and relaxation and another of the best trips for 2021 .

Sri Lanka, the so-called Lagrima de India , offers you incredible places and landscapes, as well as the possibility of making one of the most beautiful train rides between Ella and Nuwara Eliya . If you add that you can visit historical places such as Sigiriya, Anuradhapura, Dambulla Caves, Aukana or Polonnaruwa or go on a safari in search of leopards in Yala, stroll through endless tea fields in the Highlands or enjoy the wild beaches. from the south, Sri Lanka is a destination in capital letters. And if you add to that the kindness of the people and their smiles, we are sure that it is one of thebest trips for 2021 .

After touring Sri Lanka for a couple of weeks, you can catch a plane in Colombo to reach the nearby and paradisiacal Maldives Islands, the perfect place to leave your backpack, put on your swimsuit and flip-flops and just worry about enjoying the sun. the beach, good food, diving, snorkeling and relaxation in the most incredible paradise you have ever dreamed of.

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The act and process of spending time away from home in pursuit of recreation, relaxation, and pleasure, while making use of the commercial provision of services. As such, tourism is a product of modern social arrangements, beginning in western Europe in the 17th century, although it has antecedents in Classical antiquity.

Tourism is distinguished from exploration in that tourists follow a “beaten path,” benefit from established systems of provision, and, as befits pleasure-seekers, are generally insulated from difficulty, danger, and embarrassment. Tourism, however, overlaps with other activities, interests, and processes, including, for example, pilgrimage. This gives rise to shared categories, such as “business tourism,” “sports tourism,” and “medical tourism” (international travel undertaken for the purpose of receiving medical care).

The origins of tourism

By the early 21st century, international tourism had become one of the world’s most important economic activities, and its impact was becoming increasingly apparent from the Arctic to Antarctica. The history of tourism is therefore of great interest and importance. That history begins long before the coinage of the word tourist at the end of the 18th century. In the Western tradition, organized travel with supporting infrastructure, sightseeing, and an emphasis on essential destinations and experiences can be found in ancient Greece and Rome, which can lay claim to the origins of both “heritage tourism” (aimed at the celebration and appreciation of historic sites of recognized cultural importance) and beach resorts. The Seven Wonders of the World became tourist sites for Greeks and Romans.

Pilgrimage offers similar antecedents, bringing Eastern civilizations into play. Its religious goals coexist with defined routes, commercial hospitality, and an admixture of curiosity, adventure, and enjoyment among the motives of the participants. Pilgrimage to the earliest Buddhist sites began more than 2,000 years ago, although it is hard to define a transition from the makeshift privations of small groups of monks to recognizably tourist practices. Pilgrimage to Mecca is of similar antiquity. The tourist status of the hajj is problematic given the number of casualties that—even in the 21st century—continued to be suffered on the journey through the desert. The thermal spa as a tourist destination—regardless of the pilgrimage associations with the site as a holy well or sacred spring—is not necessarily a European invention, despite deriving its English-language label from Spa, an early resort in what is now Belgium. The oldest Japanese onsen (hot springs) were catering to bathers from at least the 6th century. Tourism has been a global phenomenon from its origins.

Modern tourism is an increasingly intensive, commercially organized, business-oriented set of activities whose roots can be found in the industrial and postindustrial West. The aristocratic grand tour of cultural sites in France, Germany, and especially Italy—including those associated with Classical Roman tourism—had its roots in the 16th century. It grew rapidly, however, expanding its geographical range to embrace Alpine scenery during the second half of the 18th century, in the intervals between European wars. (If truth is historically the first casualty of war, tourism is the second, although it may subsequently incorporate pilgrimages to graves and battlefield sites and even, by the late 20th century, to concentration camps.) As part of the grand tour’s expansion, its exclusivity was undermined as the expanding commercial, professional, and industrial middle ranks joined the landowning and political classes in aspiring to gain access to this rite of passage for their sons. By the early 19th century, European journeys for health, leisure, and culture became common practice among the middle classes, and paths to the acquisition of cultural capital (that array of knowledge, experience, and polish that was necessary to mix in polite society) were smoothed by guidebooks, primers, the development of art and souvenir markets, and carefully calibrated transport and accommodation systems.

Transport innovation was an essential enabler of tourism’s spread and democratization and its ultimate globalization. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the steamship and the railway brought greater comfort and speed and cheaper travel, in part because fewer overnight and intermediate stops were needed. Above all else, these innovations allowed for reliable time-tabling, essential for those who were tied to the discipline of the calendar if not the clock. The gaps in accessibility to these transport systems were steadily closing in the later 19th century, while the empire of steam was becoming global. Railways promoted domestic as well as international tourism, including short visits to the coast, city, and countryside which might last less than a day but fell clearly into the “tourism” category. Rail travel also made grand tour destinations more widely accessible, reinforcing existing tourism flows while contributing to tensions and clashes between classes and cultures among the tourists. By the late 19th century, steam navigation and railways were opening tourist destinations from Lapland to New Zealand, and the latter opened the first dedicated national tourist office in 1901.

After World War II, governments became interested in tourism as an invisible import and as a tool of diplomacy, but prior to this time international travel agencies took the lead in easing the complexities of tourist journeys. The most famous of these agencies was Britain’s Thomas Cook and Son organization, whose operations spread from Europe and the Middle East across the globe in the late 19th century. The role played by other firms (including the British tour organizers Frame’s and Henry Gaze and Sons) has been less visible to 21st-century observers, not least because these agencies did not preserve their records, but they were equally important. Shipping lines also promoted international tourism from the late 19th century onward. From the Norwegian fjords to the Caribbean, the pleasure cruise was already becoming a distinctive tourist experience before World War I, and transatlantic companies competed for middle-class tourism during the 1920s and ’30s. Between the World Wars, affluent Americans journeyed by air and sea to a variety of destinations in the Caribbean and Latin America.

Tourism became even bigger business internationally in the latter half of the 20th century as air travel was progressively deregulated and decoupled from “flag carriers” (national airlines). The airborne package tour to sunny coastal destinations became the basis of an enormous annual migration from northern Europe to the Mediterranean before extending to a growing variety of long-haul destinations, including Asian markets in the Pacific, and eventually bringing postcommunist Russians and eastern Europeans to the Mediterranean. Similar traffic flows expanded from the United States to Mexico and the Caribbean. In each case these developments built on older rail-, road-, and sea-travel patterns. The earliest package tours to the Mediterranean were by motor coach (bus) during the 1930s and postwar years. It was not until the late 1970s that Mediterranean sun and sea vacations became popular among working-class families in northern Europe; the label “mass tourism,” which is often applied to this phenomenon, is misleading. Such holidays were experienced in a variety of ways because tourists had choices, and the destination resorts varied widely in history, culture, architecture, and visitor mix. From the 1990s the growth of flexible international travel through the rise of budget airlines, notably easyJet and Ryanair in Europe, opened a new mix of destinations. Some of these were former Soviet-bloc locales such as Prague and Riga, which appealed to weekend and short-break European tourists who constructed their own itineraries in negotiation with local service providers, mediated through the airlines’ special deals. In international tourism, globalization has not been a one-way process; it has entailed negotiation between hosts and guests.

While domestic tourism could be seen as less glamorous and dramatic than international traffic flows, it has been more important to more people over a longer period. From the 1920s the rise of Florida as a destination for American tourists has been characterized by “snowbirds” from the northern and Midwestern states traveling a greater distance across the vast expanse of the United States than many European tourists travel internationally. Key phases in the pioneering development of tourism as a commercial phenomenon in Britain were driven by domestic demand and local journeys. European wars in the late 18th and early 19th centuries prompted the “discovery of Britain” and the rise of the Lake District and Scottish Highlands as destinations for both the upper classes and the aspiring classes. The railways helped to open the seaside to working-class day-trippers and holidaymakers, especially in the last quarter of the 19th century. By 1914 Blackpool in Lancashire, the world’s first working-class seaside resort, had around four million visitors per summer. Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, had more visitors by this time, but most were day-trippers who came from and returned to locations elsewhere in the New York City area by train the same day. Domestic tourism is less visible in statistical terms and tends to be serviced by regional, local, and small family-run enterprises. The World Tourism Organization, which tries to count tourists globally, is more concerned with the international scene, but across the globe, and perhaps especially in Asia, domestic tourism remains much more important in numerical terms than the international version.

Niagara Falls

Much of the post-World War II expansion of international tourism was based on beach holidays, which have a long history. In their modern, commercial form, beach holidays are an English invention of the 18th century, based on the medical adaptation of popular sea-bathing traditions. They built upon the positive artistic and cultural associations of coastal scenery for societies in the West, appealing to the informality and habits and customs of maritime society. Later beach holiday destinations incorporated the sociability and entertainment regimes of established spa resorts, sometimes including gambling casinos. Beach holidays built on widespread older uses of the beach for health, enjoyment, and religious rites, but it was the British who formalized and commercialized them. From the late 18th and early 19th centuries, beach resorts spread successively across Europe and the Mediterranean and into the United States, then took root in the European-settled colonies and republics of Oceania, South Africa, and Latin America and eventually reached Asia.

Beach holiday environments, regulations, practices, and fashions mutated across cultures as sunshine and relaxation displaced therapy and convention. Coastal resorts became sites of conflict over access and use as well as over concepts of decency and excess. Beaches could be, in acceptably exciting ways, liminal frontier zones where the usual conventions could be suspended. (Not just in Rio de Janeiro have beaches become carnivalesque spaces where the world has been temporarily turned upside down.) Coastal resorts could also be dangerous and challenging. They could become arenas for class conflict, starting with the working-class presence at the 19th-century British seaside, where it took time for day-trippers from industrial towns to learn to moderate noisy, boisterous behaviour and abandon nude bathing. Beaches were also a prime location for working out economic, ethnic, “racial,” or religious tensions, such as in Mexico, where government-sponsored beach resort developments from the 1970s displaced existing farming communities. In South Africa the apartheid regime segregated the beaches, and in the Islamic world locals sustained their own bathing traditions away from the tourist beaches.

The beach is only the most conspicuous of many distinctive settings to attract a tourist presence and generate a tourism industry, but its history illustrates many general points about tradition, diffusion, mutation, and conflict. Tourism has also made use of history, as historic sites attract cultural tourists and collectors of iconic images. Indigenous peoples can sometimes profit from the marketability of their customs, and even the industrial archaeology of tourism itself is becoming good business, with historically significant hotels, transport systems, and even amusement park rides becoming popular destinations. Heritage and authenticity are among the many challenging and compromised attributes that tourism uses to market the intangible wares that it appropriates. The global footprint of tourism—its economic, environmental, demographic, and cultural significance—was already huge at the beginning of the 20th century and continues to grow exponentially. As the body of literature examining this important industry continues to expand, historical perspectives will develop further.

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